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Installing Horde Framework 5


This document contains instructions for installing the Horde Framework on your system.

The Horde Framework, by itself, does not provide any significant end user functionality; it provides a base for other applications and tools for developers. When you have installed Horde as described below, you will probably want to install some of the available Horde applications, such as IMP (a webmail client), or Kronolith (a calendar). There is a list of Horde applications and projects at

If you are interested in developing applications for Horde, there is developer documentation and references available at, and some tutorials and papers on Horde available at

For information on the capabilities and features of Horde, see the file README in the top-level directory of the Horde distribution.

1   Quick Install

These are very terse instructions how to install Horde and its prerequisites on a LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) sytem. They are addressed to experienced administrators who know exactly what they are doing. For more detailed instructions, start reading below at Prerequisites.

  1. Compiling PHP for Apache 2:

    cd php-x.x.x/
    ./configure --with-apxs2=/usr/sbin/apxs2 \
                --with-gettext --enable-mbstring --with-gd \
                --with-png-dir=/usr --with-jpeg-dir=/usr \
    make install
  2. Restart Apache.

  3. Make sure your PEAR package is up-to-date:

    pear upgrade PEAR
  4. Register Horde PEAR channel:

    pear channel-discover
  5. Set Horde installation directory:

    pear install horde/horde_role
    pear run-scripts horde/horde_role
  6. Install Horde:

    pear install -a -B horde/horde
  7. Configure Horde:

    cd config/
    cp conf.php.dist conf.php
  8. Finish configuration:


    Go to Administration => Configuration => Horde (Or navigate to http://your-server/horde/admin/config)

  9. Create database tables

    Go to Administration => Configuration. Click Update All DB Schemas.

  10. Test Horde (optional)

Enable the test script in the Horde configuration at the General in the PHP Settings section, or edit horde/config/conf.php and set 'testdisable' to false.

Go to:



Disable the test script again after you are done.

2   Prerequisites

The following prerequisites are REQUIRED for Horde to function properly.

  1. A webserver that supports PHP.

    Horde is primarily developed under the Apache and Lighttpd webservers, which we recommend. These servers are available from:

  2. PHP 5.3.0 or above.

    PHP is the interpreted language in which Horde is written.

    You can obtain PHP sources at:


    Although the PHP 5.3 API is supported, for stability, performance, and security reasons it is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED to use a version of PHP >= 5.4.0.


    While it may be possible to install PHP using the package manager for your operating system, it is not recommended to do so if your distribution (e.g. Debian) does NOT update the actual PHP version in its package updates. Otherwise, you will be stuck with a PHP version that does not contain the most recent bug and security patches. On these systems, it is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED to either install PHP from source OR use a 3rd party package repository that contains the most recently released PHP version on the branch (5.4, 5.5, etc.) that you want to use.

    Follow the instructions in the PHP package to build PHP for your system. If you use Apache, be sure to build PHP as a library with one of the following options:


    options to ./configure, and not as a standalone executable.

    The following PHP extensions respective options are REQUIRED by Horde (listed with their own prerequisites and configure options). In many cases, the required libraries and tools can be obtained as packages from your operating system vendor.

    1. Gettext support. --with-gettext

      Gettext is the GNU Translation Project's localization library. Horde uses gettext to provide local translations of text displayed by applications. Information on obtaining the gettext package is available at

      See also note below on configuring Translations.

      All Horde translations are stored in UTF-8, so your underlying system MUST support UTF-8 for all locales that you wish to provide translation support for.

    2. XML and DOM support.

      XML and DOM support are enabled in PHP 5 by default. You only have to make sure that you do not use --disable-dom, --disable-simplexml, or --disable-xml.

      Make sure you are using a newer (v2.7 or greater) version of libxml. Older versions of libxml are broken when handling certain charsets.

    The following PHP options are RECOMMENDED to enable advanced features in Horde:

    1. File Upload Support

      File upload support is REQUIRED by many applications to allow advanced features to work. To enable file upload support:

      1. In your php.ini file, the following line must be present:

        file_uploads = On
      2. Your temporary upload directory must be writable to the user the web server is running as. If you leave the configuration option upload_tmp_dir blank in php.ini, PHP will use the default directory compiled into it (normally /tmp on Unix-like systems).

      3. Set the maximum size of the uploaded files via the upload_max_filesize configuration option in php.ini. For example, to allow 5 MB attachments, place the following line in your php.ini file:

        upload_max_filesize = 5M

      If either file_uploads is turned off, or your temporary upload directory is not writable by the server, all file upload functionality will be disabled by Horde and will not be available to the user.

      See the File Uploads FAQ entry for further information.

    2. A preferences container.

      Horde applications can store user preferences in an SQL database, an LDAP directory, an IMSP server, a Kolab server, or in PHP sessions.

      For SQL database preferences storage, Horde is thoroughly tested on MySQL(i) (--with-mysql(i)) and PostgreSQL (--with-pgsql), and has been reported to work with SQLite (enabled by default).

      Preferences can also be stored via LDAP (--with-ldap), Kolab (--with-ldap), and IMSP.

      Alternatively, preferences can be stored in PHP sessions, which requires no external programs or configure options, but which will not maintain preferences between sessions.

      While the LDAP, database, Kolab, or IMSP server need not be running on the machine onto which you are installing Horde, the appropriate client libraries to access the server must be available locally.

      If a preference container is not configured, no preference options will be configurable via Horde's web interface - the default values stored in each applications config/prefs.php file will be used.

    3. Multibyte character support (mbstring and iconv extensions) --enable-mbstring

      If these extensions are enabled, Horde can better support multibyte character sets.

      For iconv support you should use the GNU libiconv library, which is more stable and supports more charsets, compared to other iconv implementations, like Solaris', for example.

      Iconv support is enabled by default in PHP 5. You only have to make sure that you do not use --without-iconv

    4. GD support --with-gd

      Horde will use the GD extension to perform manipulations on image data through the Horde_Image library.

      If you want GD to be able to work with PNG images, you should use the --with-png-dir option to make sure PHP can find the PNG libraries it needs to compile.

      If you want GD to be able to work with JPEG images, you should use the --with-jpeg-dir option to make sure PHP can find the JPEG libraries it needs to compile.

      You can also use the imagick extension or the ImageMagick package to do these manipulations instead. The imagick extension is the recommended method for image manipulation. See the Image Manipulation tab of the Horde configuration for more details. ImageMagick version 6.5.7 or better is recommended.

    5. tidy --with-tidy

      The tidy PHP extension is required to sanitize HTML data.


    Additionally, individual Horde applications may REQUIRE or RECOMMEND other options to be built into PHP also. Please check docs/INSTALL for all applications you wish to use to see if other PHP options are needed.

    1. fileinfo

      Allows Horde applications to guess the MIME type of files by analyzing their contents.

      This extension is automatically enabled by default.

    2. intl

      The intl extension is required to handle display of Internationalized Domain Names (see RFC 3490), e.g in e-mail addresses.

      This extension can be enabled by adding the --enable-intl option when compiling PHP.

    3. curl --with-curl

      The curl extension, if installed, will be used instead of PHP's fopen() when retrieving data from external HTTP servers (remote calendars, web APIs, etc.). This is much more reliable and flexible, so it is recommended to either enable it or install the http extension.

      This extension can be enabled by adding the --with-curl option when compiling PHP.

  3. PEAR Modules

    PEAR is short for "PHP Extension and Application Repository". The goal of PEAR is to provide a means of distributing reusable code.

    For more information, see


    Make sure you are running a supported (i.e. new enough) version of PEAR: use the test script described below under "Configuring Horde". Do not use the PEAR version from

    Check that the path where the PEAR packages are installed are part of the include_path parameter that PHP uses to find PEAR packages.

    Run the command:

    pear config-show

    You will see something like:

    PEAR directory   php_dir   /usr/share/php

    Now open the php.ini file of your system, for example /etc/php.ini, find the include_path and make sure that /usr/share/php is part of the list. If you had to change that value, restart the web server after saving php.ini.


    If you are going to install Horde the recommended way, i.e. using the PEAR installer, you can skip the remainder of this section. Installing Horde through PEAR will automatically download and install all required PEAR packages.

    These PEAR packages are RECOMMENDED to be installed:

    1. Net_DNS2

      If installed, it will be used instead of the built-in PHP function gethostbyaddr() for host name lookups. This has the advantage that Net_DNS2 has configurable timeouts and retries. To install, enter the following at the command prompt:

      pear install Net_DNS2
    2. Services_Weather (>= 1.3.1)

      REQUIRED only if you wish to use the block on the portal page. To install, enter the following at the command prompt:

      pear install Services_Weather

      Additional steps are required if you want use the METAR weather block on the portal page. See the file data/Services_Weather/buildMetarDB.php in your PEAR directory for details.

    3. File_Fstab

      Required only if you use the localhost driver for the Accounts block. To install, enter the following at the command prompt:

      pear install File_Fstab

    This method of installing PEAR packages requires that you have a PHP version that has been compiled as a static binary. All versions of PHP build both both a SAPI module (Apache, CGI, etc.) and a command-line (CLI) binary. Check if you have a php binary in /usr/local/bin (/usr/bin if you installed from an operating system package) before recompiling.

    For more detailed directions on installing PEAR packages, see the PEAR documentation at

  4. PECL Modules

    PECL is short for "PHP Extension Community Library". The goal of PECL is to provide a means of easily distributing PHP extensions.

    For more information, see

    PECL is the "sister" of PEAR and uses the same packaging and distribution system as PEAR, so the configuration/setup is essentially identical to the PEAR instructions above.

    When you install a PECL extension, you have to add it to your php.ini so it gets loaded. Add the following line to your php.ini file to load the extension (the extension should be installed in the directory specified by the extension_dir option in php.ini):

    Or on Windows:


    After that, restart your webserver.

    These PECL packages are RECOMMENDED to be installed:

    1. imagick

      The imagick extension can be used by Horde's image library to provide image manipulations.

      To install, enter the following at the command prompt:

      pecl install imagick

      The imagick extension must be compiled against ImageMagick version 6.2.9 or better, though version 6.5.7 or better is recommended.

    2. horde_lz4

      If the horde_lz4 extension is available, Horde can perform real-time compression on data, resulting in reduced storage load on the server for things like cache storage and session data. It is highly recommended.

      To install, enter the following at the command prompt:

      pecl install horde/horde_lz4
    3. memcache

      If using memcache, the memcache PECL extension must be installed.

      To install, enter the following at the command prompt:

      pecl install memcache
    4. http

      The http extension, if installed, will be used instead of PHP's fopen() when retrieving data from external HTTP servers (remote calendars, web APIs, etc.). This is much more reliable and flexible, so it recommended to either install this or enable the curl extension.

      To install, enter the following at the command prompt:

      pecl install http

    For additional help on using the pear command-line program to install PECL extensions, see the PEAR installation section above.

The following non-PHP prerequisites are RECOMMENDED.

  1. aspell - Spelling Checker

    Aspell, a comand-line program, is used as Horde's spell-checking engine. You must install and configure aspell to use Horde's spell-check feature.

    Version 0.60 or higher is REQUIRED.

    You can obtain aspell from:

The following non-PHP prerequisites are optional.

  1. Sendmail.

    It is highly RECOMMENDED that Horde be configured to use SMTP for sending e-mails.

    Alternatively, Horde can use the local sendmail program, or a program that implements the sendmail(8) API (as included with postfix, qmail, and exim, among others). However, local use of sendmail binaries to send mail is discouraged due to authentication/permission issues (since Horde will invoke the sendmail binary as the web/PHP user), and because it is not possible to reliably auto-configure sendmail since there is no unified API across platforms/sendmail variants.

3   Installing Horde

The RECOMMENDED way to install Horde is using the PEAR installer. Alternatively, if you want to run the latest development code or get the latest not yet released fixes, you can install Horde from Git.

3.1   Installing with PEAR

Before beginning, make sure your PEAR package is up-to-date:

pear upgrade PEAR

Next, you need to register the Horde PEAR channel server to your local PEAR system. This has to be done only once ever on a single PEAR system:

pear channel-discover

Next install a so-called "role" for Horde. This role defines where Horde is installed. This should be a directory in your web server's web root, e.g. /var/www/horde. Again this has to be done only once ever on a single PEAR system:

pear install horde/horde_role
pear run-scripts horde/horde_role

When installing Horde through PEAR now, the installer will automatically install any dependencies of Horde too. If you want to install Horde with all optional dependencies, but without the binary PECL packages that have to be compiled, specify both the -a and the -B flag:

pear install -a -B horde/horde

By default, only the required dependencies will be installed:

pear install horde/horde

If you want to install Horde even with all binary dependencies, you need to remove the -B flag. Please note that this might also try to install PHP extensions through PECL that might need further configuration or activation in your PHP configuration:

pear install -a horde/horde

3.2   Installing into separate PEAR


Unless you really know why you want to do this, you probably do not want to do this. Use the general PEAR installation instructions from above instead.

If you want to create a separate PEAR installation for installing Horde, independent from the system-wide PEAR installation, this can be done with the following commands (in this example, /var/www/horde is used as the location of the web-accessible horde directory):

mkdir /var/www/horde
pear config-create /var/www/horde /var/www/horde/pear.conf
pear -c /var/www/horde/pear.conf install pear

Then follow the regular installation steps, but use the pear command from the PEAR installation you just created, e.g.:

/var/www/horde/pear/pear -c /var/www/horde/pear.conf channel-discover \

Finally configure your web server in some way to point PHP's include_path setting to the PEAR installation and the PHP_PEAR_SYSCONF_DIR environment variable to the directory used during the config-create command:

php_value include_path /var/www/horde/pear/php
SetEnv PHP_PEAR_SYSCONF_DIR /var/www/horde

It is recommended to not use the .htaccess file in /var/www/horde/ to set these values because it will be overwritten with every further update.

4   Configuring Horde

  1. Configuring the web server

    Horde requires the following webserver settings. Examples shown are for Apache; other webservers' configurations will differ.

    1. PHP interpretation for files matching *.php:

      AddType application/x-httpd-php .php


      The above instructions may not work if you have specified PHP as an output filter with SetOutputFilter directive in Apache 2.x versions. In particular, Red Hat 8.0 and above Apache 2.x RPMS have the output filter set, and MUST NOT have the above AddType directive added.

    2. index.php as an index file (brought up when a user requests a URL for a directory):

      DirectoryIndex index.php
    3. If you plan to provide ActiveSync support to your users, you have to create an alias of the /Microsoft-Servers-ActiveSync URL to /horde/rpc.php. See for details.

    1. If you plan to provide CardDAV support to users with iOS devices, you have to create an alias of the /.well-known/carddav URL to /horde/rpc.php. See for details.
  2. Configuring Horde

    To configure Horde, change to the config/ directory of the installed distribution, and copy the conf.php.dist configuration file to conf.php.

    Documentation on the format and purpose of the configuration files in the config/ directory can be found in each file. The defaults will be correct for most sites. If you wish to customize Horde's appearance and behavior, create "local" files for the configuration file you want to change. For example if you want to change the default value and lock a preference, create a config/prefs.local.php file with the following content:

    $_prefs['prefname']['value'] = 'somedefault';
    $_prefs['prefname']['locked'] = true;

    This works with any configuration file.


    All configuration files in Horde are PHP scripts that are executed by the web server. If you make an error in one of these files, Horde might stop working. Thus it is always a good idea to test the configuration files after you edited them. If you want to test mime_drivers.local.php for example run:

    php -l mime_drivers.local.php
  3. Completing Configuration

    You can now access Horde without a password, and you will be logged in as an administrator.


    You should first configure a real authentication backend and designate which accounts in your real backend will be administrator accounts. Horde does NOT have a default administrator account - all users, including administrators, must exist in the actual authentication backend. Click on Configuration in the Administration menu and configure Horde. Start in the Authentication tab.

    Here is an example for configuring authentication against a remote IMAP server. Similar steps apply for authenticating against a database, an LDAP server, etc.

    1. In the Which users should be treated as administrators field enter a comma separated list of user names of your choosing. This will control who is allowed to make configuration changes, see passwords, potentially add users, etc.
    2. In the What backend should we use for authenticating users to Horde pulldown menu select IMAP authentication. The page will reload and you will have specific options for IMAP authentication.
    3. In the Configuration type pulldown menu select Separate values. The page will reload with additional options. Fill in the remaining three fields appropriately:
      • IP name/number of the IMAP server
      • For a secure connection, select port 993.
      • Select the secure connection protocol to use, if desired.

    Continue to configure Horde through all the tabs of the configuration interface and click on Generate Horde Configuration. An important item that you probably want to configure is the Database Settings, which defines the database configuration that is used, by default, for several different Horde sub-systems.


    By default Horde will be using database backends for most sub-systems. If you do not plan to use a database with Horde, you need to go through all tabs of the configuration screen and change the configuration for those systems from SQL to a suitable alternative.

    Configuration of applications in registry.php is documented in the INSTALL file of each application. Most applications require you to configure them with a "Horde administrator" account. A Horde administrator account is any normal Horde account that has been added to the administrator list in the Authentication tab of the Horde configuration.

    The other files in that directory need only be modified if you wish to customize Horde's appearance or behaviour -- the defaults will work at most sites.

  4. Creating databases

    Once you created the database configuration in the previous step, you can create all database tables by hitting the Update all DB schemas button in the configuration screen.

    Please note that this requires the database that you entered in the database configuration to already exist, and the configured database user to have sufficient permissions to create new tables in this database.

    Alternatively you can run the horde-db-migrate script in the Horde directory from the command line.

    If you installed Horde into the global PEAR system, this script should be in your command path. If the script cannot be found in your path, you need to specify the full path to the script, e.g.:


    You can use the pear command to find the place where the script has been installed:

    pear config-get bin_dir

    If you installed into a local PEAR installation, you need to tell PHP and PEAR where to find the installation and the script, e.g.:

    PHP_PEAR_SYSCONF_DIR=/var/www/horde php \
        -d include_path=/var/www/horde/pear/php \
  5. Setting up alarm emails

    If you want your users to be able to receive emails from the Horde_Alarm system, you must set up a cron entry for horde-alarms, you must have at least one administrator specified in the Horde configuration, and you must have the PHP CLI installed (a CGI binary is not supported - php -v will report what kind of PHP binary you have).

    Running the job every 5 minutes is recommended:

    # Horde Alarms
    */5 * * * * /usr/bin/horde-alarms

    If not installing Horde through PEAR or if PEAR's bin_dir configuration doesn't point to /usr/bin/, replace /usr/bin/horde-alarms with the path to the horde-alarms script in your Horde installation.

  6. Testing Horde

    Once you have configured your webserver, PHP, and Horde, bring up the included test page in your Web browser to ensure that all necessary prerequisites have been met. If you installed Horde as described above, the URL to the test page would be:


    The test script is disabled by default for security reasons. To enable set the 'testdisable' configuration option to false. After testing is completed, the testdisable option should be reset to true.

    Check that your PHP and PEAR versions are acceptably recent, that all required capabilities are present, and that magic_quotes_runtime is set to Off. Then note the Session counter: 1 line under PHP Sessions, and reload the page. The session counter should increment.

    If you get a warning like Failed opening '/path/to/test.php' for inclusion, make sure that the web server has the permission to read the test.php file.

  7. Securing Horde

    1. Passwords

      Some of Horde's configuration files contain passwords which local users could use to access your database. It is recommended to ensure that at least the Horde configuration files (in config/) are not readable to system users. There are .htaccess files restricting access to directories that do not need to be accessed directly; before relying on those, ensure that your webserver supports .htaccess and is configured to use them, and that the files in those directories are in fact inaccessible via the browser.

      An additional approach is to make Horde's configuration files owned by the user root and by a group which only the webserver user belongs to, and then making them readable only to owner and group. For example, if your webserver runs as www.www, do as follows:

      chown -R root.www config/*
      find config/ -type f -exec chmod 0440 '{}' \;
    2. Sessions

      Session data -- including hashed versions of your users' passwords, in some applications -- may not be stored as securely as necessary.

      If you are using file-based PHP sessions (which are the default), be sure that session files are not being written into /tmp with permissions that allow other users to read them. Ideally, change the session.save_path setting in php.ini to a directory only readable and writeable by your webserver.

      Additionally, you can change the session handler of PHP to use any storage backend requested (e.g. SQL database) via the Custom Session Handler tab in the Horde configuration.

    For more information about securing your webserver, PHP and Horde, see the docs/SECURITY file.

5   Dynamic View Troubleshooting

Horde's dynamic, AJAX-based views differ from traditional Horde applications in that they require javascript support; in fact, javascript performs the bulk of the page display. As such, debugging the dynamic views is more complex than with other Horde applications.

If you run into problems with the dynamic view, first follow the troubleshooting steps for Horde - namely checking PHP error logs and Horde debug logs to determine if the problem is located there. Server-based errors will be logged in the traditional manner.

Only if traditional debugging is unsuccessful will you need to move to javascript debugging. It is highly recommended to use Mozilla Firefox with the Firebug extension installed in order to better track javascript errors - it is what the developers use and makes deciphering error codes and error line numbers much easier. You will also want to turn off javascript caching, if on, in horde/conf/conf.php.

If you do find a javascript error, it would be great if you could fix the issue and provide a patch :) Absent that, before reporting to the mailing list, IRC room, or bug tracker make sure you have a valid javascript error, the file the error is being caused in, the line number of the error, and a reliable way to reproduce the error. Developers/other interested folks will be much more likely to help you if all this information is provided.

6   Configuring Applications

A list of available Horde applications can be found at

Instructions on configuring Horde applications can be found in the INSTALL file in the application's docs/ directory.

7   Temporary Files

Various Horde applications will generate temporary files in PHP's temporary directory (see the General tab in the Horde configuration). For various reasons, some of these files may not be removed when the user's session ends. To reclaim this disk space, it may be necessary to periodically delete these old temporary files.

An example cron-based solution can be found at horde/scripts/temp-cleanup.cron in PEAR's data_dir directory. Another possible solution is to use utilities like tmpwatch, tmpreaper or anything similar to remove old files.

Stale sessions are automatically pruned by PHP according to the session.gc_probability, session.gc_divisor, and session.gc_maxlifetime settings located in php.ini.

8   Translations

Note for international users: Horde uses GNU gettext to provide local translations of text displayed by applications; the translations are found in the po/ directory. If a translation is not yet available for your locale (and you wish to create one), or if you're having trouble using a provided translation, please see the docs/TRANSLATIONS file for instructions.

9   Obtaining Support

If you encounter problems with Horde, help is available!

The Horde Frequently Asked Questions List (FAQ), available on the Web at

The Horde Project runs a number of mailing lists, for individual applications and for issues relating to the project as a whole. Information, archives, and subscription information can be found at

Lastly, Horde developers, contributors and users may also be found on IRC, on the channel #horde on the Freenode Network (

Please keep in mind that Horde is free software written by volunteers. For information on reasonable support expectations, please read

Thanks for using Horde!

The Horde Team